The process of homogenization involves breaking down a substance, like the fat globules in
milk, into incredibly tiny particles and distributing those particles evenly throughout the milk.
The cream will not float to the top of milk that has been properly homogenized. High pressure is
used to force milk through relatively tiny openings, dissolving the fat globules in the process.
Not for flavour, but to give milk its familiar rich, white colour and smooth texture, milk is
Milk is homogenized for four reasons:
Because the fat is distributed uniformly, cream doesn't collect on top.
The appearance of homogenized milk is improved.
It has a longer shelf life (up to 11 days).
Homogenization allows producers to combine milk from various cows into a single
Pasteurization of milk is not the same as homogenization of milk. Most of the time, milk is
pasteurized first and then homogenized to evenly distribute the milk fat and create a uniform
There are two steps in this process. First, the milk is mechanically squeezed through tiny pores or
tubes. The small diameter of the holes and the continuous flow of milk cause a buildup of
pressure, which causes the fat particles to start collapsing. Naturally, the smaller the particles are,
the higher the pressure. On average, milk is compressed at 2,000–3,000 pounds per square inch.
Having said that, some emulsifying equipment can exert pressure of up to 14,500 psi.
The fat molecule traces start to reassemble as they get smaller. They do this by capturing casein
and whey in their walls; some of them are completely surrounded by protein. They often clump
together as a result. Therefore, the purpose of the second stage of homogenization is to dissolve
these clumps and guarantee that the milk's components are distributed uniformly.
Pasteurization is typically followed by homogenization. Even though pasteurization of
homogenized milk is not required and vice versa, the majority of commercial brands do so.
There are several distinct benefits to homogenization:
Longer shelf life
Enhanced flavour and colour
Preferable for cooking
Easy to digest
In general, low-fat milk is preferable if you have heart or vessel problems. While
homogenization changes the size of the fat globules in milk, it has no other nutritional effects.